Research

Participatory Action Research (PAR)




Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a systematic inquiry that focuses on the involvement of the people concerned in their transformation. It liberates research from conventional methods and seeks to de-centralize the traditional research. It is a means to initiate collaboration among the children, Care-administrators, Management and Researchers of YaR Centres and involves the children in the process of understanding their issues/problems and solves them in order to transform themselves and the YaR Centres. It promotes capacity building among the children, Care-administrators, Management and Researchers of YaR Centres and assures sustainability. The PAR project is being implemented from March 2015 to March 2018.

Savings Behavior of Vulnerable Families in Mumbai






Statement of the problem
The family is an integral part of any post repatriation programme. For this, it is important that there should be definite plans to work with families of children repatriated to their families from the Children's Home. Continuous follow-up visits with families help in understanding the circumstances that may have "pushed" the child on to the streets. In most cases, poor financial status of the family compels the child to take to the streets, seeking alternative measures of survival. Often the families are from the lower income groups with little or no means to support the child. These families either are completely dependent on their children's income for survival or expect their children to fend for themselves. Thus, understanding the economic conditions of these families is vital to prevent relapse.

In a recent Rapid Assessment Survey of street children carried out in 2013 by the Don Bosco Research Centre in 16 Indian cities, the data showed an increasing trend of slum spill on streets. Analysis indicated that in Mumbai, a large percentage of such children came from the slums in Govandi. They took to the streets and railway platforms for their survival due to poor economic conditions at home. Thus, these children and the families living in this area were identified as families who needed preventive strategies for slum spill through financial inclusion.

Objectives
The aim of the study is to understand saving behaviour of families of repatriated children from different areas in Mumbai and families of children at risk in Govandi. Specific objectives are as follows:

  • To understand the sources of income, expenditure and savings patterns of these families

  • To understand the outlook of these families towards financial inclusion

  • To understand the economic behaviour and challenges in savings among these families

Study Design
Sampling Procedure: This study was conducted in order to find the gaps in savings behaviour of the families and to support them for financial inclusion. These were families of children who had been repatriated from Dongri Children's Home by Don Bosco Balprafulta (refer to the location of the study to trace the location of the families in Mumbai) and families of children who were part of Don Bosco Balprafulta's centre at Govandi. The sample size was 50 (25 families of repatriated children and 25 families of children at risk in Aadarsh Nagar, Govandi) and the outcome of the research was expected to help design interventions for these specific families. This would also build scope for further study and analysis of other such families where children were at risk.

Rapid Assessment Survey Of Street Involved Children In Mumbai




The estimates on street involved children have been scattered, fragmented, conflicting and have not been used to inform service interventions or Government policies. Sensing the need to provide a reliable data on street involved children, the Don Bosco Research Centre (DBRC) Mumbai commissioned a rapid assessment survey on street involved children in Mumbai in collaboration with the Don Bosco National Forum for Young at Risk (YaR) Delhi in 2012. The study aimed at providing the Government Child Protection Units and other service providers with reliable facts and figures of street involved children in Mumbai that could eventually influence advocacy, policies and budget allocation for a well coordinated service to them. Census of street involved children across 16 wards of Greater Mumbai and 15 nodes of Navi Mumbai were recorded along with inputs from 265 street involved children identified at different hot spots for a period of one month. Street involved children included children on the street, children of the street, orphaned, abandoned, children of migrant families and street families. Besides the primary sources, secondary sources of information from the police, social workers and NGOs who have been providing services to street involved children have been factored in the study.

Major Findings:
A total of 16059 street involved children were identified, 10805 boys and 5254 girls. Highest concentration of street involved children was reported in M ward of Greater Mumbai (3106). 38% reported to be from Maharashtra suggestive of intra- state migration from rural to urban. 40% of the of the study were from the slums indicating the phenomenon of slum spillover to street. 30% constituted children residing on the streets, a strong indication of growing street families, migrant families abandoned and orphaned children in Mumbai. 31% of children spent whole day and night on the streets of Mumbai, 40% had dropped out of school. Poverty was the major factor for street involvement and rag picking major source of earning. Health was the major concern and a shelter for a secured living the main expectation from the Govt.

In the light of the rapid assessment study, DBRC makes the following recommendations to the Child Protection Units of the state to formulate related child friendly policies and allocation of budgets accordingly.

  1. Strengthening the migrant families through social and financial inclusive programmes to sustain them economically. This could imply providing income generation programmes routed through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and marketing facilities channelized through Labour Department. For social inclusive programmes provide mechanisms to distribute documents of identity proof to migrant and street families
  2. Provide compact programmes for the children of migrant children & families in the city

  3. A need to enforce the implementation of the RTE and compulsory admission to all children without any documents for primary education

  4. The need for community outreach workers to ensure educational facilities to accommodate all children to the neighbourhood schools

  5. Provide skill training to the children above 15-16 years for a vocation and employability

  6. Creation of saving provisions such as Children Development Bank and empower the children to operate the system

  7. Collaborative approach for child care services

  8. Advocacy: Based on the emerging issues relating to street children in Mumbai, advocacy measures to be taken up with the Government and other service providers in a collaborative manner to address the issue and possible interventions on a long term basis.

  9. Encourage the foster care programme where rehabilitation fails

  10. The Child Rights Commission could help in overseeing the government outlays for the education and training of these children

  11. Constitute a monitoring unit for the effective implementation of ICPS & ICDs schemes

  12. Periodic evaluation of schemes and statutory bodies under JJ Act


Rapid Assessment Survey Of Street Involved Children In Bangalore


The estimates on street involved children have been scattered, fragmented, conflicting and have not been used to inform service interventions or Government policies. Sensing the need to provide a reliable data on street involved children, BOSCO Bangalore commissioned a rapid assessment survey on street involved children in Bangalore in collaboration with the Don Bosco National Forum for Young at Risk (YaR) Delhi and Don Bosco Research Centre (DBRC) Mumbai in 2012. The study aimed at providing the Government Child Protection Units and other service providers with reliable facts and figures of street involved children in Bangalore that could eventually influence advocacy, policies and budget allocation for a well coordinated service to them. The study comprised estimation of street involved children across 60 wards in Bangalore, interviews with 500 randomly selected street involved children for a period of one month. Street involved children included children on the street, children of the street, orphaned, abandoned, children of migrant families and street families. Besides the primary sources, secondary sources of information from the police, social workers and NGOs who have been providing services to street involved children have been factored in the study.

Major Findings:
Bangalore ward wise statistics showed the presence of 7523 street children with 5077 boys and 2446 girls. West zone housed maximum number of children. Boys under 15 years and girls below 8 years were spotted more in numbers. 45% of child respondents were from Karnataka, indicating rural to urban migration from within the state. More than one-fourths of the respondents lived in the slums of Bangalore suggesting slum spill. 46% stayed with parents, which means children on the street. Primary level of education was the highest (44%) and more than 10 % reported to be out of school or dropouts. Problems related to academics was the major reason for dropout. Poverty ( 50%) the major reason for street involvement. Rag picking and begging the major economic activities for survival. Organized child begging racket was reported. Food was the major concern and a proper dwelling place as major expectation form the service providers.

In the light of the rapid assessment study, BOSCO Bangalore makes the following recommendations to the Child Protection Units of the state to formulate related child friendly policies and allocation of budgets accordingly

  1. Strengthening the migrant families through social and financial inclusive programmes to sustain them economically through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).For social inclusive programmes provide mechanisms to distribute documents of identity proof to migrant and street families
  2. Provide compact programmes for the children of migrant children & families in the city

  3. Organised child labour and child begging calls for intervention and remedial measures

  4. A need to enforce the implementation of the RTE and compulsory admission to all children without any documents for primary education

  5. Provision for migrant children to learn in their mother tongue since medium of instruction was found to be major learning issue among migrant children resulting high dropout in Bangalore.

  6. Major concerns of the street children were found to be lack of housing facilities, food and health services. Measures need to be taken by the State Government to tackle these concerns. Free medical checkups and free medical services must be made available to them.

  7. The need for community outreach workers to ensure educational facilities to accommodate all children to the neighbourhood schools

  8. Provide skill training to the children above 15-16 years for a vocation and employability

  9. Creation of saving provisions such as Children Development Bank and empower the children to operate the system

  10. Collaborative approach for child care services

  11. Advocacy: Based on the emerging issues relating to street children in Bangalore advocacy measures to be taken up with the Government and other service providers in a collaborative manner to address the issue and possible interventions on a long term basis.

  12. Encourage the foster care programme where rehabilitation fails

  13. Grants be given to registered NGOs to accommodate the children as per the demands
  14. The Child Rights Commission could help in overseeing the government outlays for the education and training of these children
  15. Constitute a monitoring unit for the effective implementation of ICPS & ICDs schemes
  16. Periodic evaluation of schemes and statutory bodies under JJ Act


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